|Hugh Glass the Pirate
Glass, then a sailor, is reportedly captured by pirate Jean Lafitte and forced into piracy. Glass and a companion eventually escape near Galveston Bay.
Hugh Glass with Pawnee
Glass is allegedly captured by the Wolf Pawnee Indians probably in what is now Kansas. His companion is sacrificed by burning. Adopted into the Pawnee tribe, Glass lives with them.
|William Ashley’s First Expedition up the Missouri River
Ashley, Andrew Henry and 100 men leave St. Louis by keelboat for trapping and trading on the upper Missouri River. Jim Bridger is on the first boat commanded by Henry. Ashley follows with a second boat.
|Hugh Glass in St. Louis
Having left the Pawnee, Glass arrives in St. Louis in the summer or fall of 1822 after William Ashley has left.
|Fort Henry on the Yellowstone
By September, Andrew Henry arrives at the mouth of Yellowstone River and builds a fort. Jim Bridger is still with Henry. William Ashley arrives on Oct 1st with supplies and returns immediately to St. Louis. Jedediah Smith arrives with Ashley, but stays at the fort.
|William Ashley’s Second Expedition up the Missouri River
Ashley’s second expedition leaves St. Louis in keelboats with Hugh Glass and John Fitzgerald as part of the crew.
|Jedediah Smith returns Down River
Henry sends Smith down river with a message for William Ashley to bring horses and supplies.
Fifteen Ashley men are killed at the Arikara villages including John S. Gardner. Jedediah Smith and John Fitzgerald are at the battle. Hugh Glass is wounded. Soon after the battle, Glass writes a letter and sends it via a St. Louis bound keelboat to Gardner’s parents to advise them of their son’s death.
Jedediah Smith Returns to Fort Henry
Shortly after the Arikara Battle, William Ashley sends Smith back up river to get Andrew Henry and his men.
|Andrew Henry Joins William Ashley
After hearing from Jedediah Smith, Henry comes down river to join Ashley bringing most of his men including Smith and Jim Bridger.
Led by Colonel Henry Leavenworth, the Sixth Infantry, Ashley/Henry trappers, Missouri Fur Company trappers, and Sioux Indians lay siege to the Arikara villages. The Arikara escape and their village is burned, by trappers. The Arikara move about 150 miles up the Missouri River to an abandoned village near the Mandan, except Gray Eye’s band of Arikara, now led by Elk’s Tounge, who head southwest to the Platte River.
|Andrew Henry’s Expedition
Andrew Henry leads a group of about 30 (including Hugh Glass, John Fitzgerald and Jim Bridger) up the Grand River on their way to Fort Henry at the mouth of Yellowstone River. William Ashley and Jedediah Smith return down river to Fort Kiowa.
|Mandan Indian Attack
Andrew Henry’s group is attacked by Mandan Indians on the Grand River. Two men are killed.
|Hugh Glass Grizzly Attack
Glass is mauled by a grizzly bear and is eventually left for dead by two companions, John Fitzgerald and a youth, possibly Jim Bridger (Did Bridger Abandon Glass?), who hurry to catch up with Andrew Henry.
|Fort Henry on the Big Horn
Arriving at the mouth of Yellowstone River and finding Fort Henry harassed by Blackfeet. Andrew Henry abandons the fort, moves to the Big Horn River at the mouth of the Little Big Horn River and constructs a new fort. Jim Bridger and John Fitzgerald are now with Henry’s party.
|Jedediah Smith Expedition
William Ashley sends Jedediah Smith with 10 men west from Fort Kiowa to find new trapping grounds. Their route is up the White River toward the Black Hills.
|Hugh Glass at Fort Kiowa
After struggling as much as 300 miles, Glass arrives at Fort Kiowa no later than October 11.
|Jedediah Smith Grizzly Attack
During October, probably as Hugh Glass is making it back to Fort Kiowa, Smith is also attacked and severely wounded by grizzly on the Cheyenne River.
|Hugh Glass Heads Back Up The Missouri
Shortly after Glass arrives, chief trader Joseph “Kiowa” Brazeau sends a six man trading party from Fort Kiowa to the Mandan villages led by Antoine Citoleux (aka Langevin). Glass volunteers to be part of the group.
|Arikara Attack Langevin
Langevin and his crew are attacked and killed by the Arikara near the Mandan villages. Hugh Glass left the group just before the attack and escapes to nearby Fort Tilton about mid-November.
John Fitzgerald Leaves Fort Henry
As Hugh Glass narrowly escapes the Arikara attack, Moses Harris leads a party, including Fitzgerald, down river from Fort Henry on the Big Horn to Fort Atkinson and will pass by Fort Tilton.
|Hugh Glass Leaves Fort Tilton
Glass leaves Fort Tilton shortly after arriving and heads up the Missouri river by himself toward Fort Henry.
John Fitzgerald Arrives at Fort Tilton
Coming down the Missouri River, Moses Harris and Fitzgerald arrive at Fort Tilton just days after Hugh Glass had left going up river. Fitzgerald may have heard from Fort Tilton traders that Glass is alive.
|Hugh Glass Arrives at Fort Henry on the Yellowstone
Glass arrives at the abandoned Fort Henry at the mouth of Yellowstone River and continues toward the new Fort Henry on the Big Horn.
|John Fitzgerald arrives at Fort Atkinson
Moses Harris’ party, with Fitzgerald, arrives at Fort Atkinson, the army post at Council Bluffs.
|Hugh Glass arrives at Fort Henry on the Big Horn
Glass arrives at the new Fort Henry at the forks of the Big Horn River. He confronts and forgives Jim Bridger.
|Hugh Glass leaves Fort Henry
A party of five including Glass depart Fort Henry carrying a message for Ashley. Their route is up the Powder River, across to the Platte River, and down Platte in a bull boat to find William Ashley at Fort Atkinson or St. Louis.
|Jedediah Smith Finds the Green River Valley
After spending the winter with Crow Indians on the Wind River, Smith and his crew cross South Pass and find abundant beaver and no hostile Indians in the Green River Valley.
|Arikara attack on the Platte
Hugh Glass’s party encounter Elk’s Tongue’s band of Arikara camped on the Platte River probably near the Laramie River. Two of the trappers are killed and three escape including Glass who is, once again, on his own.
|John Fitzgerald Enlists in the Army
On April 19, at Fort Atkinson, Fitzgerald enlists in the army for 5 years.
|Hugh Glass arrives at Fort Kiowa
After a cross-country trip alone on foot, Glass arrives back at Fort Kiowa and two weeks later arrives at Fort Atkinson still carrying the message for Ashley. At Fort Atkinson, he confronts John Fitzgerald and gets his gun back, but does not harm him probably because Fitzgerald is enlisted in the Army.
|Hugh Glass on the Santa Fe Trail
Sometime after arriving in St. Louis, Glass joins a trading and trapping party to Santa Fe.
|Andrew Henry leaves the Fur Trade
In the fall of 1824, Henry returns to St. Louis, dissolves his partnership with William Ashley and retires from the fur trade.
|Hugh Glass in Taos
Glass is in Taos in early 1825.
|Henry’s Fork Rendezvous
After hearing of Jedediah Smith’s success in the Green River Valley from Thomas Fitzpatrick in the fall of 1824, William Ashley brings supplies and holds the first of sixteen annual rendezvous on July 1st, 1825 at Henry’s Fork of the Green River. Ashley, Smith, and Jim Bridger are all present, but Hugh Glass is not.
|Hugh Glass in Utah Country
Based out of Santa Fe or Taos, Glass leads a trapping and trading party to Utah country. He is wounded with an arrow in back in a skirmish with Indians (maybe Shoshone).
|Cache Valley Rendezvous
The second annual rendezvous is held in Cache (or Willow) Valley in June of 1826. Hugh Glass is not present.
|Bear Lake Rendezvous
Hugh Glass probably attends the 1827 summer rendezvous held at the south end of Bear Lake.
|Bear Lake Rendezvous
Hugh Glass does attend the 1828 summer rendezvous held again at Bear Lake.
|Fort Union built on the Yellowstone
The American Fur Company builds Fort Floyd, better known as Fort Union, at the mouth of the Yellowstone River within a couple miles of the abandoned Fort Henry.
|1828 – 1832
|Hugh Glass at Fort Union
In the fall of 1828, perhaps dissatisfied with trade at the rendezvous, Glass negotiates a trade deal with Kenneth McKenzie at the new Fort Union and probably traps on the Upper Missouri for the next 4 years.
|Fort Cass Built on Big Horn
Fort Cass (or Fort Tulloch) is built by the American Fur Company at the confluence of the Yellowstone River and Big Horn River in the fall of 1832, just 30 miles downriver from the abandoned Fort Henry.
|Hugh Glass Killed by Arikara
In early spring 1833, Hugh Glass, Edward Rose, and Hilain Menard were killed by Arikara near Fort Cass.
Myers, John Myers. Pirate, Pawnee and Mountain Man: The Saga of Hugh Glass. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1963.
Haines, Aubrey L. “Hugh Glass” in The Mountain Men and the Fur Trade of the Far West. Glendale, California: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1965-72. Ten volumes edited by Leroy R. Hafen. Volume VI, pp 161-171.
Gowans, Fred R. Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, 1976.
Morgan, Dale L. editor. The West of William H. Ashley. Denver, Colorado: Old West Publishing Company, 1964.